2018年3月30日 星期五

Daily Bulletin for 03/30/2018 

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Mini Stomachs Found Growing in Tumor

Meghana Keshavan, Stat

Embedded in a lung cancer tumor, scientists have found a gastrointestinal tract in miniature.Duke University researchers have observed rudimentary, but functional, stomachs, small intestines, and duodenums growing inside cancerous lungs illustrating how varied and plastic these metastatic cells can be.

Crack in East Africa Shows Continent Is Splitting

Lucia Perez Diaz, Conv

A large crack, stretching several kilometres, made a sudden appearance recently in south-western Kenya. The tear, which continues to grow, caused part of the Nairobi-Narok highway to collapse and was accompanied by seismic activity in the area.The Earth is an ever-changing planet, even though in some respects change might be almost unnoticeable to us. Plate tectonics is a good example of this.

Humanity: 'Out of Africa' and 'Out of Asia'?

Christopher Bae, Aeon Magazine

Modern humans arose only once, in Africa, about 200,000 years ago. They then spread across Eurasia some time after 60,000 years ago, replacing whatever indigenous populations they met with no interbreeding. This is the Out of Africa' model, as it's commonly known.

What Causes Knuckles to Crack?

Nicola Davis, The Guardian

The sound of popping knuckles has long been a source of bafflement for scientists. Now researchers say they might have cracked its origins.While previous research has shown that not all joints can make the sound, and that those that do can only be cracked once every 20 minutes or so, quite what is behind the auditory pop has been a topic of hot debate.

The Hidden Healing Power of Sugar

Clara Wiggins, BBC Future

As a child growing up in poverty in the rural Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe, Moses Murandu was used to having salt literally rubbed in his wounds when he fell and cut himself. On lucky days, though, his father had enough money to buy something which stung the boy much less than salt: sugar.

Whisper from First Stars Sets Off Dark Matter Debate

Liz Kruesi, Quanta

The news about the first stars in the universe always seemed a little off. Last July, Rennan Barkana, a cosmologist at Tel Aviv University, received an email from one of his longtime collaborators, Judd Bowman. Bowman leads a small group of five astronomers who built and deployed a radio telescope in remote western Australia. Its goal: to find the whisper of the first stars.

DASH Diet May Help Treat Depression

Olga Khazan, The Atlantic

At the turn of the 20th century, prominent physicians who were trying to understand where mental illness comes from seized on a new theory: autointoxication. Intestinal microbes, these doctors suggested, are actually dangerous to their human hosts. They have a way of inducing fatigue, melancholia, and the neuroses, as a historical article in the journal Gut Pathogens recounts.

Rare Particle Decay Could Lead to New Physics

Ryan Mandelbaum, Gizmodo

Physicists in Switzerland are on a subatomic hunt that, they hope, will reveal some entirely new results beyond the limits of their theories.An experiment at CERN in Geneva, called NA62, is designedto let scientists watch a rare kind of particle decay. The team, using a whole new method, may have finally spotted what they're looking for.

Scant Science to Back Cambridge Analytica's Methods

Elizabeth Gibney, Nature

The practices of Cambridge Analytica, a data-analytics firm involved in US President Donald Trump's 2016 election campaign, have made headlines around the world this month. It's alleged that the firm received data from millions of Facebook users, gathered without their explicit consent.

The Coming Carbon-Recycling Revolution

Matt Warren, Science News

Every year, the billions of metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) we release into the atmosphere add to the growing threat of climate change. But what if we could simply recycle all that wasted CO2 and turn it into something useful?By adding electricity, water, and a variety of catalysts, scientists can reduce CO2 into short molecules such as carbon monoxide and methane, which they can then combine to form more complex hydrocarbon fuels like butane.

A Few Powerful Men Left a Genetic Mark on Humanity

David Reich, Nautilus

In humans, the profound biological differences that exist between the sexes mean that a single male is physically capable of having far more children than is a single female. Women carry unborn children for nine months and often nurse them for several years prior to having additional children.

What We Really Know About Transgender Genetics

Ricki Lewis, PLoS Blogs

The week started strangely.On Monday morning, the author of a new book on transgender identity emailed me, asking about my research (I don't have any). She'd read my comments in The Daily Mail about an abstract from a meeting identifying gene variants associated with transgender identity in a handful of people. But the writer, with whom I hadn't communicated, didn't name the researcher. So people thought it was me.

Organic Food 'Utopia' Would Be a Disaster

Ross Pomeroy, RCScience

What if the entire world converted to organic agriculture? Over the past decade, a number of scientists have explored this utopian vision, and they all say it's possible. Yes, even with the human population projected to rise another 2.1 billion to 9.7 billion people in 2050, we can feed them all organically.But what would a strictly organic world look like? Drilling into the details, it seems more dystopian than utopian.

Should We Embrace Transhumanism?

David Trippett, The Conversation

Biological evolution takes place over generations. But imagine if it could be expedited beyond the incremental change envisaged by Darwin to a matter of individual experience. Such things are dreamt of by so-called transhumanists. Transhumanism has come to connote different things to different people, from a belief system to a cultural movement, a field of study to a technological fantasy.

Artificial Gametes Could Revolutionize Reproduction

Jason Pontin, Wired

About 40 years ago, Louise Brown, the first human created using in vitro fertilization, was conceived in a petri dish. Not long after her birth, Leon Kass, a prominent biologist and ethicist at the University of Chicago, wrung his hands about the then-revolutionary technology of joining sperm and egg outside the body.

X-Ray 'Ghost Images' Could Cut Radiation Doses

Sophia Chen, Science News

On its own, a single-pixel camera captures pictures that are pretty dull: squares that are completely black, completely white, or some shade of gray in between. All it does, after all, is detect brightness.Yet by connecting a single-pixel camera to a patterned light source, a team of physicists in China has made detailed x-ray images using a statistical technique called ghost imaging, first pioneered 20 years ago in infrared and visible light.
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