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2018年4月23日 星期一

Daily Bulletin for 04/23/2018 

04/23/2018
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Sweating: Why Humans Dominate Earth?

Philip Perry, Big Think

Persistence truly does pay off, even if you have to endure the perspiration that comes with it. This is true right down to the biological and evolutionary level, and is in fact how we got here, as the apex predator of the planet. Millions of years ago, digestion consumed most of the calories we ate. Our brain takes 20 times more energy than any other organ in the body.

What Are Mercury's Mysterious Red Spots?

David Rothery, Conversation

Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, but far from being a dull cinder of a world, it has instead turned out to be a real eye opener for geologists. Among the revelations by NASA's MESSENGER probe, which first flew past Mercury in 2008 and orbited it between 2011 and 2015, is the discovery of a hundred or so bright red spots scattered across the globe. Now they are at last being named.

We Are Reaching the Biological Limits of Humanity

Ross Pomeroy, RCScience

The 20th century was a period of unprecedented biological growth for our species. The average human lifespan increased from 31 years in 1900 to 66 years in 2000. Adults grew more than 8 centimeters taller. Sports records toppled on an annual basis.

The Politicization of Science's Reproducibility Crisis

Michael Schulson, Undark

David Randall and Christopher Welser are unlikely authorities on the reproducibility crisis in science. Randall, a historian and librarian, is the director of research at the National Association of Scholars, a small higher education advocacy group. Welser teaches Latin at a Christian college in Minnesota. Neither has published anything on replication or reproducibility.

Mission Seeks to Study Magnetic Field of the Oceans

Matt Williams, Univ Today

Earth's magnetic field is one of the most mysterious features of our planet. It is also essential to life as we know it, ensuring that our atmosphere is not stripped away by solar wind and shielding life on Earth from harmful radiation. For some time, scientists have theorized that it is the result of a dynamo action in our core, where the liquid outer core revolves around the solid inner core and in the opposite direction of the Earth's rotation.

Could Antimatter Be Found Inside Black Holes?

Ethan Siegel, Forbes

One of the greatest cosmic puzzles in our entire Universe is why there's so much more matter than antimatter. The laws of physics, as far as we can tell, only allow you to create or destroy matter and antimatter in equal amounts. Yet when we look out at the stars, galaxies, and large-scale structure of the Universe, we find that it's all made of matter, with only trace amounts of antimatter to be found anywhere.

Is It Time for a New Astronomical Yardstick?

Alison Klesman, Astronomy

Click anywhere on this site, and you'll likely run into a measurement in terms of light-years, solar masses, astronomical units, or arcminutes. These units are unique to astronomy, and all can be expressed in terms of other, more fundamental units, such as meters, grams, and degrees.

Do Scientists Study the Right Cancer Cells?

Peter Hokland, ScienceNordic

Last year the rather religious sounding film The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks' was released in the US. It documents the tragic real life story of a young woman who died in the early 1950s due to rapidly growing ovarian cancer.The immortal' part refers to her cancer cells, which scientists at the John Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, succeeded in growing in culture, and in doing so establishing a continuous growth of her cells.

Europe Emerges as Neutron Science Powerhouse

Michael Banks, Physics World

Europe's neutron facilities are leading the world in terms of the number and quality of publications but their pre-eminence could be threatened in the coming decade as new facilities in Asia ramp up. That is the conclusion of a new analysis carried out by researchers at Forschungzentrum Jlich (FZJ) in Germany and published on arXiv.

Exoplanets May Reveal How Venus Became a 'Hell' Planet

Daniel Oberhaus, MB

The planet Venus is by all accounts a pretty hellish place. Pressures at its surface are 92 times greater than the air pressure on Earth, its temperatures soar to over 900 degrees fahrenheit during the day (the hottest planetary surface in the solar system), and its atmosphere is a deadly cocktail of sulphuric acid and carbon dioxide.

How to Blow Up a Star

Elizabeth Gibney, Nature News

After spending three months trying to blow up a star, Hans-Thomas Janka and his team finally saw what they had been waiting for. Like the world's most patient pyromaniacs, they watched their massive stellar simulation rendered in painstaking detail inch closer to detonation. Each day, their supercomputer ticked through just 5 milliseconds of the star's life.

Will Rising Carbon Dioxide Really Boost Plant Growth?

Stuart Thompson, Conv

Plants have become an unlikely subject of political debate. Many projections suggest that burning fossil fuels and the resulting climate change will make it harder to grow enough food for everyone in the coming decades. But some groups opposed to limiting our emissions claim that higher levels of carbon dioxide (CO?) will boost plants' photosynthesis and so increase food production.

100,000-Year-Old Marking May Be First Human Symbol

Michael Erard, Science

About 100,000 years ago, ancient humans started etching lines and hashtag patterns onto red rocks in a South African cave. Such handiwork has been cited as the first sign our species could make symbolsdistinct marks that stand for some meaningand thus evidence of a sophisticated mind.

Tilapia: Freak Farmed Fish or Evolutionary Rock Star?

Ricki Lewis, PLoS Blogs

Posts are appearing on my Facebook feed warning against the dangers of eating tilapia. So I decided to do a little research.My dad was a seafood wholesaler at the Fulton Fish market, and as a kid I'd encountered all manner of fish, at the dinner table and from working one summer at his stall. I knew about porgies, red snapper, flounder, and crabs galore, and that gefilte fish was a mixture of carp, whitefish, and pike. My dad even dealt in turtles and he'd send the occasional mystery species uptown to the American Museum of Natural History for identification.

Should Quantum Anomalies Make Us Rethink Reality?

Bernardo Kastrup, Sci Am

Every generation tends to believe that its views on the nature of reality are either true or quite close to the truth. We are no exception to this: although we know that the ideas of earlier generations were each time supplanted by those of a later one, we still believe that this time we got it right. Our ancestors were nave and superstitious, but we are objectiveor so we tell ourselves.

What the Archaeology of Night Reveals

April Nowell & Nancy Gonlin, Sapiens

As recently as a few decades ago in the Western world, stars dazzled humans with their brightness and the Milky Way could be seen spanning the far reaches of the heavens as night deepened into an unspeakable darkness. In the 21st century, such a scene is becoming a rarity across many parts of the globe as we light up the night like never before.

Soviet A-Bomb Test Led the U.S. to Climate Science

Sharon Weinberger, Undark

On March 23, 1971, the Soviet Union set off three Hiroshima-scale nuclear blasts deep underground in a remote region some 1,000 miles east of Moscow, ripping a massive crater in the earth. The goal was to demonstrate that nuclear explosions could be used to dig a canal connecting two rivers, altering their direction and bringing water to dry areas for agriculture.
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